tryptophan degradation in acute Lyme neuroborreliosis

Eur J Clin Chem Clin Biochem. 1994 Sep;32(9):685-9.

Neopterin production and tryptophan degradation in acute Lyme neuroborreliosis versus late Lyme encephalopathy.

Source

Klinik für Neurologie, Universität Innsbruck, Austria.

Abstract

Fourteen patients with Borrelia burgdorferi infection were investigated for possible abnormalities of tryptophan and neopterin metabolism. Four patients (2 were investigated before therapy, 2 when therapy had been already started) had acute Lyme neuroborreliosis, and 10 patients were investigated months to years after an acute infection. Increased concentrations of neopterin and of the tryptophan-degradation product, L-kynurenine, were detected in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with acute Lyme neuroborreliosis; one patient presented with subnormal tryptophan. Similar but less marked changes were seen in the treated patients and in some of the patients with Lyme encephalopathy. No such abnormalities were seen in the serum of the patients. The data indicate a role of the immune system and particularly of endogenously formed cytokines, like interferon-gamma and tumour necrosis factor-alpha, effecting tryptophan and neopterin metabolism in patients with acute Lyme neuroborreliosis.

PMID:
7865624
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

LinkOut - more resources

traitement d'octobre 2011

apres 15 jours de mosil , 1gr 6 /j + 750 mg de zinnat je trouve que la progression est immense , je n'avais pas eu ce traitement encore

je recommence à vivre , à marcher un peu parfois et j'ai plus le moral
je progresse incontestablement

une dizaine de jours d'arrêt et je repartirais avec doxy et amoxy

conférence 2011 Burrascano 2011

Burrascano Notes from March 21st  2011 talk

Dr.  Burrascano has treated over 10,000 patients with Lyme since early ‘80s.

“It is up to you. Learn as much as possible. Do as much as possible. Have a positive attitude.”

Dr. Burrascano’s definition of Lyme Disease
“Lyme disease is the illness that results from the bite of an infected deer tick; it’s not one germ.”

 Stages of Lyme

Early Lyme – I
Disseminated Lyme – II
Chronic Lyme – III
-for one or more years – immune system breakdown and its consequences
-co-infections become important
-serologic tests less reliable
-treatment must be more aggressive and of longer duration

The sicker you are, the less reliable the tests; lyme burrows deeper and is no longer easily detected in blood

CD-57 test – the one test that shows how long Lyme has been present (See more blow regarding CD57)

Tick Bites

Only 17% recall having a tick bite (Texas Dept of Health)
Only 36% recall a rash
Only 50% have positive western blot
Co-infections: tests are even less sensitive

Ticks: nature’s “dirty needles”; a tick lives for 2 years

Co-infected patients: more ill, more difficult to treat; Lyme treatments do not treat Babesia, Bartonella, or viruses.

**Dr. Burrascano says he has never seen a patient without co-infections.

Sorting Out Co-Infections
Lyme, Bartonella, Babesia, Ehrlichia, Mycoplamsa

Lyme – Gradual onset, no sweats, 4 week cycles, multisystem, afternoon fevers

It is important to take your temperature several times a day (record in journal)

Babesia – Cycles every few days, makes everything worse

Ehrlichia – Sharp headaches behind eyes, low WBC, elevated liver function

Mycoplasma – Made worse with exercise, aka “Chronic Fatigue Germ”, major fatigue, neurological disfunction, found in the sickest and poorest responding; have the worst CD-57 tests

ELISA test – mostly useless; use Western Blot
Spinal Tap – only 9% have + csf
PCRs – 60% sensitivity at best because germ doesn’t stay in blood
LDA – 30% sensitivity

Why Igenex?

Dr. B has no affiliation with them, no professional relationship with them, etc…

If a test is commercialized to be sold as a test kit, it must follow narrow CDC restrictions and guidelines. (Ironically, these restrictions were a result of the Lyme vaccine debacle.)

Most Lyme tests are commercial. Commercial Lyme tests miss 75% of cases.

Based on double-blind government proficiency tests, IGenex did well.

CD-57 COUNT (tracks a type of white blood cell)

Lower counts seen in chronic Lyme
Only Lyme (not co-infections) makes CD-57 low

The CD-57 reading does not change *during* treatment … until Bb is controlled. Then it quickly changes.

Predicts a relapse if low when antibiotics end

The CD-57 test must be done by LabCorp’s method (using the “normal is >200” scale)
60 Lyme activity minimal
> 120 – relapse not likely

Why Are Chronic Lyme Patients So Sick?

-High spirochete load (perhaps multiple bites)
-Protective niches in the body and biofilms allow Bb to evade the immune system and antibiotics
-Immune suppression and immune evasion

Biofilms are a protective layer

Lyme germs live in different forms:
Spirochete – surrounded by a cell wall
Spiroplast – balls up, has no cell wall
Cystic form – has hard outer shell

Lyme germs can live *inside* a human cell, inside the vacule

Doxycycline – can get into the cell
Erithromycin – can get into the cell
Rocephin – does not kill germs inside vacule

Treatment - Back to Basics

Form a therapeutic alliance with your Dr.; should be able to have “meeting of the minds”

Pharmacology
-It is *critical* that you achieve therapeutic drug levels – this varies from patient to patient
-Antibiotics – you *must* have extra-cellular and intra-cellular meds as Bb can live in and out of cells
-Antobiotics – must act on blood & tissues

Spirochete forms:
Penicillins, Cephalosporins, Primaxin, Vancomycin,

Spiroplast/L form:  no cell wall
Tetracyclines, Erythromycin

Cyst:
Metronidazole, Tinidazole, Rifampin

Spirochete B. burgdorferi – needs sustained levels
L form – Tetracyclines, need a spike in blood levels
Cystic – Metronidazole, sustained levels for 2 weeks +

Antibiotic combinations are necessary
Intracellular and extracellular
Blood and tissue

Intravenous therapy is most effective
Intramuscular Penicillin effective as well

Indications For Intravenous Therapy
-illness for more than one year
-prior use of steroids
-documented immune deficiency
-abnormal spinal fluid
-synovitis with high ESR
-age over 60
-failure or intolerance of oral therapy

Typical Regimen

Oral
Cefuroxime + Clarithromycin
Augmentin XR + Telithromycin

Injection
BicillinLA + Clarithromycin

Intravenous
Clarithromycin + Telithromycin
Vancomycin + Clarithromycin

-high doses needed
-combination usually necessary
-check for co-infections
-rotate treatments

Rate of recovery dependent on germ; stronger drug will not speed recovery.

Find a regimen that works and stick with it
Change when you’ve reached a plateau
Treatments: at least 4-6 weeks before changes

Relapses

-relapses occur; retreatment needed
-repeated and/or prolonged antibiotic therapy

Aggressive supportive therapy also necessary:
Sleep cycle
Food
Supplements
Detoxing

As symptoms wind down, DO NOT cut dosage! Resistance develops that way.

Progressively increase exercise program
-exercise is vital and required
-not exercising will increase risk of relapse

If CD-57 is not normal at end of treatment, continue treatment or there will be relapse
 
Prognosis
-May not cure infections, may need open-ended maintenance therapy

What to Watch For:
Signs of persistence; continued fevers
Four week cycles of ailments
Migrating symptoms
Positive PCR or urine LDA

If you have not relapsed in 3 years, you never will.

What if you’re not sure you’re over it?
Low grade fever still present
Signs of recurrent four-week cycles
Migrating pain
Low CD-57 counts

Bartonella
The Bartonella co-infection with Lyme seems to be clinically different that “cat scratch”.
Instead, they are Bartonella-like organisms; more prevelent that Borrelia in some ticks

Clinical Clues
Encephalopathy
Irritability
Anxiety
Stomach lining
Insomnia
Rashes
AM fevers
Night sweats
Tender skin nodules

Bartonella treatment:
Levaquin Fluoroquinolones

Erithromycins don’t kill this
Rifampin & Metronidazole may be alternatives
1 – 3 months of treatment

Piroplasms – Babesia
Is a parasite

Symptoms
Night sweats
Air hunger
An occasional cough
Persistent migraine-like headache
A vague sense of imbalance without true vertigo
Encephalopathy
Fatigue

Babesia Treatment
Not treated with antiobiotics

Azithromycine & Mepron
Malarone
Coartem – Antimalarial for Babesia (new)

Ehrlichia
Headaches
Muscle soreness
Persistent leucopenia (low WBC)

Treatment
Doxycycline 1st choice

Mycoplasms
“Chronic fatigue” germ
Ubiquitious in environment (in dust, for example)
Treatment is difficult

Worms
New species of nematodes in 63 – 75% of patients from Massachusetts

Fatigue
Lives in lungs mainly
(Dr. Eva Sapi, Dr. Larry Klapow – research)

An open mind is important!!

Biofilms
Dental plaque is an example
Gel-like substance in which germs can embed
Biolfilms in the gut are implicated in many digestive diseases & possibly food allergies and mal-absorption

Biofilm busters:
Banderol plus Samento
Enzymes

Methylation Cycle
Key component of metabolism
Need to bring up methylation cycle
This cycle can be blocked when chronically ill
75% of Lyme patients responded better after  treating

Crazy or Is It Lyme?
Cytokines – mediators of inflammation, are activated.
When this occurs in the CNS, it triggers diversion of tryptophan into kynurenine
Result: depression, neuropathy, fog brain, “crazy” perception

Bornavirus
Autism-related?
Distant cousin to Rabies and distemper
Brain is the site of infection
Does not damage nerve cells but blocks cell function
Brain fog, fatigue leads to depression

Treatment:
Antiviral Amantadin
65 – 70% success rate

XMRV
Xenotropic Murine Leukemia Virus
Virus – is gamaretrovirus, 1st isolated in prostate cancer
68 out of 101 CFIDS samples contained XMRV
XMRV is found on only 3% of healthy samples
XMRV is also found present in cases of: MS, ALS, Parkinsons, Autism, Fibromyalgia
Lyme patients who did not recover: 1005 of them had XMRV

Does it prevent a full recovery from Lyme?
Is it found in ticks?

Dr. Judy Mikovits

Treatment – XMRV
Retrovirus is cousin to HIV
-be sure there is not excessive cortisol and DHT
-consider adding antivirals AZT, tenofovir, raltegravir

Basic Advice

NO steroids or other immune suppressives!
No smoking at all
No alcohol (makes germs stronger, weakens immune system)
Clean diet: low carb, low glycemic index, high quality proteins
Maintain hydration (Lyme patients become dehydrated quickly, sense of thirst is altered)
May need mineral supplements

ENFORCED REST

You are NOT allowed to get tired
Take a break before afternoon lag
Work and school – Go in later, leave earlier, take a midday break, take Wednesdays off
Rest on days off
No caffeine, no stimulants
Home should be quiet, comfortable, non-toxic
Nap if needed!!
If you need to sleep late, do it!!

Exercise Program

Body sculpting
Gentle with free weights, exercising all muscles; very light or no weights
NO AEROBICS
Each body sculpting session 45 min; 60 minutes preferred
Begin with good progressive warm-up
Take a hot shower or bath afterward and go to bed. Lie quietly if you cannot sleep.
Never exercise daily
Total rest on off days
As strength improves, increase weight and resistance but maintain high number of repetitions
As stamina improves, exercise more, but NEVER daily.

Dr. B believes: spirochetes choose skin as their final hiding place.

Nutritional Supplements

Probiotics

Multivitamins w/minerals

CoQ10 or ubiquinone

NT-factor or “ATP fuel”

ATP Fuel

Vitamin D – maintain upper-normal levels

Essential Fatty Acids

Magnesium

Methyl B-12

B complex

Transfer Factors

Detoxify

FIR Saunas: Helpful to excrete organic toxins

PLEASE NOTE:  Because the presentation was so dense and rich with information, there may be some info that was left out.

DEET does not work!! Use Premethrin!

(Developed in cooperation with the U.S. Military, government agencies, universities and others; this Sawyer Clothing repellent offers superior protection from disease-carrying biting insects. The active ingredient, Permethrin is a synthetic molecule similar to those found in natural pyrethrum which is taken from the Chrysanthemum flower. Not only does this product repel insects, but will actually kill ticks, mosquitoes, chiggers, mites and more than 55 other kinds of insects. Sawyer Permethrin repellent is for use on your clothing, tents and other gear. A single application lasts up to six weeks and will remain effective even if you wash the garment once a week. Permethrin is odorless when dry, and during the drying process it tightly bonds with the fibers of the treated garment, it will not stain or damage clothing, fabrics, plastics, finished surfaces, or any of your outdoor gear. Try our two easy-to-use treatment methods: aerosol spray and NEW soak system. Both methods provide protection from mosquitoes and ticks through 6 launderings.)

And the most important part.......

Live with a healthy attitude;
Lose “poor me”, lose anger

Do not become “Lyme obsessed”
Pursue other interests and distractions
Enjoy friends and family
Cuddle with your pets

I want to thank you my friend for taking these wonderful notes for me and for all of you!

Labels: Burrascano, CALDA, Lyme Disease, March 21, Santa Rosa

spirochetesunwound

http://spirochetesunwound.blogspot.com/2011/10/tale-of-two-more-studies-topical.html

Sunday, October 30, 2011

A tale of two more studies: topical antibiotics applied to tick bites to prevent Lyme disease

Feeding Ixodes ticks harboring Borrelia burgdorferi deposit the Lyme disease spirochete in the skin of the victim.  The spirochetes remain in the skin for a few days before entering the bloodstream to spread throughout the host.  The delay in dissemination provides a window of opportunity to stop the infection by simply applying antibiotics to the skin where the tick was feeding.  Topical application of antibiotics would allow patients to avoid experiencing side effects associated with ingesting antibiotics.

ResearchBlogging.orgI recently posted a critique of a study by Knauer and colleagues, who tested the ability of a topical antibiotic to prevent B. burgdorferi infection in lab mice bitten by infected ticks.  As I explained in the post, the antibiotic appeared to prevent infection, but the investigators had used a weakened B. burgdorferi strain to inoculate the mice.  Consequently it wasn't possible to draw any conclusions about the effectiveness of their antibiotic formulation in preventing infection.

Now let's look at two more studies that tested the ability of topical antibiotics to prevent infection in the mouse model of Lyme disease.  These studies were conducted properly with highly infectious B. burgdorferi strains.  One study was published almost 20 years ago.  The other appeared online just last month.  Both studies were published in The Journal of Infectious Diseases.

In their 1993 study Shih and Spielman were able to prevent B. burgdorferi infection by applying at least 1 milligram of tetracycline starting up to two days following the tick bite.  The antibiotic had to be applied twice a day for at least three consecutive days (see table below).  The presence of infection four weeks after tick feeding was assessed by xenodiagnosis, which tests whether the spirochetes could be recovered by ticks placed on the skin at a location distant from the original tick bite.  The investigators also found that penicillin, amoxicillin, ceftriaxone, doxycycline, and erythromycin applied for three days beginning one day after tick feeding prevented infection.


Although this study demonstrated the promise of topical antibiotics in preventing Lyme disease in those who discover a tick feeding on them, a limitation of the study was that most of the antibiotics were dissolved in DMSO, which is not approved for use on humans.  The only antibiotic dissolved in a solvent suitable for humans was erythromycin, which was added into 70% ethanol.

For their 2011 study, Wormser and colleagues decided to dissolve the antibiotics in something else that would be acceptable to apply to human skin.  They rubbed a 2% erythromycin ointment or 3% tetracycline gel over the tick bite 1-2 days after the infected ticks finished feeding on the mice.  The antibiotics were applied twice daily for three days.  Four weeks later urinary bladder and ear tissue were cultured to see whether the mice had a disseminated infection.  The authors found that their antibiotic formulations failed to prevent systemic infection, although erythromycin was able to prevent a persistent infection at the tick bite site in some of the mice (see table below).


Erythromycin and tetracycline were tested in both studies.  Why the stark difference in the effectiveness of the same antibiotics in the two studies?   In the Discussion of their paper, Wormser and colleagues highlighted the major methodological differences between the studies:
  • Different antibiotic concentrations. A much higher concentration of erythromycin was applied to the tick bites in the 1993 study.
  • Different solvents.  DMSO, the solvent used for the 1993 study, may have promoted better penetration of tetracycline into the skin than the ointment and gel formulations selected for the Wormser study.
  • Different placement of infected ticks.  In the 1993 study the infected ticks were placed on the ear for feeding.  In the Wormser study the ticks were placed on the back, where the skin may be thicker and hence more resistant to antibiotic penetration.
  • Different B. burgdorferi strains.  Wormser and colleagues used ticks infected with the highly invasive BL206 strain to inoculate the mice, whereas Shih and Spielman used ticks infected with the less invasive JD1 strain.
  • Different mouse strains.  The C3H mouse strain used in the Wormser study is highly susceptible to dissemination by B. burgdorferi.
For this simple treatment approach to effective, higher concentrations of the antibiotic in a penetrating solvent such as ethanol may be necessary.  Different B. burgdorferi and mouse strains should also be tested in future studies.


References

Shih, C.-M., & Spielman, A. (1993). Topical prophylaxis for Lyme disease after tick bite in a rodent model Journal of Infectious Diseases, 168 (4), 1042-1045 DOI: 10.1093/infdis/168.4.1042

Wormser, G.P., Daniels, T.J., Bittker, S., Cooper, D., Wang, G., & Pavia, C.S. (2011). Failure of topical antibiotics to prevent disseminated Borrelia burgdorferi infection following a tick bite in C3H/HeJ mice Journal of Infectious Diseases DOI: 10.1093/infdis/jir382
Knauer, J., Krupka, I., Fueldner, C., Lehmann, J., & Straubinger, R.K. (2011). Evaluation of the preventive capacities of a topically applied azithromycin formulation against Lyme borreliosis in a murine model Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy DOI: 10.1093/jac/dkr371


Related post

Direct0bio : j'ai testé pour vous le Saint Domingue Ocoas

le Saint Domingue Ocoas !
 
voici mon commentaire sur ce café : tout d'abord l'odeur qui passe à travers le paquet est absolument divine , elle donne tout de suite envie de goûter à ce café, malheureusement mon paquet était un peu coupé sur le côté ce qui fait qu'un peu de café s'échappait, mais ce n'était pas grave 

la mouture n'est pas fine , elle ressemble à celle que l'on obtenait dans les anciens moulins à café , surtout quand on moulinait les grains à la main , ce qui nous a surpris ; 
puis est venu le moment de la dégustation :
franchement il y a vraiment tres longtemps que je n'avais bu un aussi bon café filtre , un café qui a du goût , aucune amertume , un café qui reste bien en bouche et dont l'odeur vous titille les narines ; nous le recommandons fortement , vous ne serez pas déçus , il est grandiose ; 
merci à Direct0bio de nous avoir fait tester le Saint Domingue Ocoas , il nous a fait rêver, je le recommande fortement à tous les amateurs de bon café


http://www.directobio.com/cafe-saint-domingue-ocoas-moulu-filtre-250g-p-337-1_40.html









maladie psychiatrique dues à des réactions auto-immunitaires

Défensif et offensif
> Le système immunitaire peut, par erreur, endommager le cerveau d'une autre façon (et pas seulement chez le fœtus).
> Même si les preuves scientifiques indiquent un lien entre les maladies mentales et les infections prénatales, beaucoup de recherches sont faites afin de voir s'il peut y avoir des cas de maladie psychiatrique dues à des réactions auto-immunitaires déclenchées lors de l'enfance ou même de l'âge adulte.
> Certaines infections peuvent déclencher le système immunitaire et lui faire attaquer des cellules du cerveau.
> Une de ces infections est une infection due aux streptocoques (ceux qui sont responsables de l'angine rouge).
> En 1998, les médecins, l'équipe du docteur Swedo, faisaient une étude sur les enfants qui souffraient de Troubles Obsessionnels du Comportement (TOC) et constatèrent qu'un petit pourcentage de ces enfants avaient tout d'un coup développé ces TOCs après une infection due au streptocoque bêta hémolytique du groupe A.
> Généralement, les TOC viennent progressivement, mais chez ces enfants, on était passé d’aucun symptôme à TOC en l'espace de 24 ou 36 heures.
> En gros, ces enfants se sont réveillés un matin et avaient des TOCs.
> C'est pour cela que les TOCs dus à cette condition, aux États-Unis, ont une dénomination bien particulière : PANDAS (Pediatric Autoimmune Neuropsychiatric Disorders Associated with Streptococcal infections).
> D'après le docteur Swedo et son équipe, PANDAS se développent, car le système immunitaire attaque le cerveau après l'infection.
> La bactérie du Streptoccoque contient certaines protéines à sa surface qui ressemble aux protéines faites par les humains. C'est ce qui aide la bactérie à ne pas se faire éjecter par son hôte.
> Lorsque le corps découvre la bactérie, il l'attaque, et dans ce processus de défense, il attaque aussi ses propres protéines.
> Certaines études ont trouvé des anticorps contre le cerveau chez des patients atteints du PANDAS, mais d'autres études n'ont pas pu reproduire l'expérience.
> Ce qui fait que le diagnostic du PANDAS est toujours sujet de controverse.
> Mais même si on a toujours certains doutes, la plupart des scientifiques s'accordent à penser que le PANDAS est une pièce importante du puzzle.
> Si la raison est une réaction auto-immune ou une interruption du développement du cerveau foetal, si le coupable est le système immunitaire plutôt que l'infection en elle-même, ceci simplifie grandement le problème.
> Et cela nous expliquerait pourquoi on trouve plusieurs maladies impliquées dans les maladies psychiatriques : grippe, rubéole, herpes, etc.
> Ces infections sont très différentes et agissent différemment sur notre corps, oui, mais le point commun est notre système immunitaire.
> Les chercheurs espèrent pouvoir découvrir les raisons des maladies mentales et espèrent un jour trouver une solution, une cure.
> Le plus important, si on veut combattre les maladies mentales, est de les éviter au premier abord. Si les infections jouent un rôle crucial, cela ouvre les portes pour de nombreuses solutions.
> Mais cela pourrait aussi changer certaines des habitudes que nous avons, car si, comme tout porte à le croire en ce moment, c'est le système immunitaire, et non l'infection en elle-même qui affecte le fœtus, il va falloir arrêter de conseiller aux femmes enceintes de se faire vacciner contre la grippe.
> Peut-être arrivera-t-on à des médicaments qui viseront directement l'infection ou qui contrôleront l'interférence du système immunitaire avec le cerveau, afin d'éviter une attaque auto-immunitaire sur les cellules du cerveau.
> Le 20e siècle a curé toute une série de maladies physiques dues à des infections, peut-être que le 21e siècle verra une cure aux infections qui affectent notre cerveau ?

Des études récentes indiquent une grande variété de liens entre certaines infections et des éléments psychiatriques. Voici certaines des corréaltions les mieux documentées à l'heure actuelle.
Schizophrénie Prénatal Grippe, rubéole, Taxoplasma gondii, herpes, polio, varicelle, maladie de lyme.
Postnatal Taxoplasma gondii, maladie de lyme, chlamydia, herpes.
TOC Prénatal Aucun lien trouvé.
Postnatal Streptocoques.
Bipolaire Prénatal Herpes, Taxoplasma gondii.
Postnatal Herpes, Taxoplasma gondii.
Autisme Prénatal Rubéole, herpes, maladie de lyme.
Postnatal Maladie de lyme, mycoplasmose, clostridium (bactérie qui cause le botulisme).
Alzheimer Prénatal Herpes.
Postnatal Aucun lien trouvé.
> Syndrome de Tourette Prénatal Aucun lien trouvé.
Postnatal Mycoplasme.
> (Cyril Malka d'après Melinda Wenner)

Pr Montagnier : recherches sur lyme

http://83.143.18.11/sante-et-forme/videos/avancee-de-la-recherche-sur-la-maladie-de-lyme-par-le-pr-luc-montagnier.html

Anne Ghesquière, fondatrice de FemininBio.com a rencontré le Professeur Luc Montagnier Président de la Fondation Mondiale Recherche et Prévention SIDA.

Le Pr Luc Montagnier s'exprime en particulier sur la maladie de Lyme, mais aussi sur d'autres thèmes comme notre système immunitaire, le stress oxydant (cause du vieillissement de nos cellules), les avancées dans la recherche sur le SIDA et l'eau. Le lien entre tous ces thèmes est bien entendu "le terrain" et donc la réponse de notre système immunitaire.


http://83.143.18.11/sante-et-forme/videos/avancee-de-la-recherche-sur-la-maladie-de-lyme-par-le-pr-luc-montagnier.html